Ingo Swann by Paul H. Smith
Ingo Swann in his studio in New York, 2010 (photo by Paul H. Smith)

















Ingo Swann is properly considered to be the father of remote viewing. Swann developed the protocol for and conducted the first-ever remote viewing experiment, and coined the term for it in 1971 while working with researchers at the American Society of Psychical Research in New York. Shortly thereafter, he and Dr. Harold E. Puthoff, Ph.D. conducted a remote viewing experiment that caught the attention of the CIA, leading to more than two decades of government involvement in the remote viewing program. (see Where Did Remote Viewing Come From?) Much that is known about remote viewing and related psi behavior came from the experiments and experiences of Mr. Swann. It is his coordinate remote viewing methodology (now called “controlled” remote viewing, or CRV), developed with the help of Dr. Puthoff and others in the government-funded laboratory at Stanford Research Institute that forms the core of nearly all formal remote viewing training being promoted today by the likes of Ed Dames, Lyn Buchanan, Dave Morehouse, Courtney Brown and especially by Paul H. Smith, who in his training curriculum probably best preserves the fullness of the Swann methodology.


From: The Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology (4th ed.):

Prominent American psychic research subject, parapsychologist, and author, Ingo Swann was born September 14, 1933, at Telluride, Colorado, and died January 31, 2013 in New York City. Swann studied at Westminster College, Salt Lake City, Utah, receiving a double bachelor’s degree in biology and art. He enlisted in the U.S. Army and served three years in Korea, after which he worked for twelve years at the United Nations Secretariat while pursuing an independent art career.

Swann’s active participation in parapsychology research began in 1969 when he was 36 years old. During the next twenty years he worked only in controlled laboratory settings with scientific researchers. Although he lectured widely on the importance of psychic faculties and potentials, he has never publicly demonstrated his abilities. Because of his participation in hundreds of thousands of experimental trials, author Martin Ebon wrote of him as “parapsychology’s most tested guinea pig,” and Psychic News and other media often refer to him as “the scientific psychic.”

During the 1950s and 1960s, because of psychic potentials partly evident in childhood, he became actively interested in occult and parapsychological literature and in a variety of novel mind-development programs which took positive approaches to the enhancement of ESP potentials.

Swann early distinguished between psychic phenomenon and psychic mind-dynamic processes. He especially noticed that while parapsychology researched the existence of paranormal phenomena (such as ESP, telepathy, and psychokinesis), there was little interest in the mental processes involved in producing evidence of them. From this distinction he slowly developed unique theoretical approaches to process enhancement of psi perceptions, which was in keeping with ancient descriptions of Siddhis as found in various Eastern Yoga literature and Abraham Maslow’s developmental abilitism theories.

In 1970-71 Swann experimented with Cleve Backster in attempting to influence plants by mental activity. In 1971-72 psychokinetic experiments involved successfully influencing temperature recorded in a controlled setting devised by parapsychologists Gertrude Schmeidler and Larry Lewis at City College, New York. this involved PK effects upon target thermistors (temperature measuring devices) in insulted thermos bottles at a distance of 25 feet from Swann. (For a report, see G.R. Schmeidler, “PK Effects Upon Continuously Recorded Temperature,” Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, no. 4, Oct. 1973).

Swann was also the subject of experiments in out-of-body travel, or psychic perception at a distance. These took place during 1971-73 at the American Society for Psychical Research. They involved Swann sitting in a chair and attempting to project his consciousness into sealed boxes on a small platform several feet above his head, in which there was a target symbol completely shielded from view. Swann was monitored by electrodes that would have recorded any movement from the chair.

Under these difficult laboratory conditions, Swann nevertheless scored significant successes in describing the targets. In one test he was actually able to state correctly that a light that should have illuminated the target was inoperative. There was no normal way of ascertaining this fact without opening the box.

In 1972-73, at the American Society for Psychical Research, Swann began suggesting experimental protocols to test for the existence of mind-dynamic processes that would enhance ESP and Dr. Gertrude Schmeidler, he coined the term “remote viewing” to describe the experiments in which subjects attempted to view targets at a far distance. His original remote-viewing protocols were later utilized and expanded upon in collaboration with the researchers Dr. H.E. Puthoff and Russell Targ. Other laboratories ultimately repeated various kinds of remote-viewing experiments.

Swann’s successes on the East Coast attracted the attention of the quantum physicist Harold E. Puthoff, at the Standford Research Institute, in Menlo Park, California (later renamed SRI International). From late 1973 until 1989 Swann worked principally at SRI’s “psychoenergetics project” established by Puthoff to examine important psi faculties (rather than psychic phenomena per se).

One of the first most remarkable experiments involved a successful attempt to influence the stable magnetic field of a super-cooled Josephson junction inside a quark detector (a complex apparatus designed to detect subatomic particles). The apparatus was completely inaccessible, being encased in aluminum and copper containers and buried in five feet of concrete. When Swann mentally visualized the hidden target, significant variations were recorded in sine waves. This PK effect was reported at a conference on quantum physics and parapsychology.

On April 27, 1973, in another extraordinary experiment, Swann “visited” the planet Jupiter in a joint “psychic probe” shared by fellow psychic Harold Sherman. Swann’s drawings made during the experiment showed a ‘ring’ of tiny asteroids around the planet which scientists at the time said did not exist. The existence of the ring was later scientifically confirmed in 1979.

From the first experiments, Swann was increasingly considered a very unique test subject because, at the command of the experimenters, he could reproduce and sustain the desired effects over time at a significant rate of success. Throughout the history of parapsychology, other test subjects had been temporarily or spontaneously successful. But these subjects typically suffered from the well-known “decline effect” or “psi-missing effect” which statistically erased the successes, and thus permitted skeptics to believe that the successes were due to some outside factor other than claimed human psi abilities.

Most books and articles written after 1973 about parapsychology and psychic matters refer to Swann’s work in some way. Many analysts of science and parapsychology generally concede that his work and the high levels of official sponsorship it obtained gradually influenced positive reevaluations of the validity of psi in human experiencing.

After nineteen years on the cutting edge of psi developments, the “longest run” of any subject on record, Swann retired from full-time research to undertake independent research into the problems and states of consciousness. In final interviews regarding the dimensions of his past work, he stated that the long-term stresses of laboratory work and the constant need to defend the validity of psi faculties and exceptional experiencing had taken their toll. He occasionally accepts invitations to lecture but refuses to talk to the media. In a paper read at the United Nations in March 1994 (entitled “Scientists find the basis for seventeen-plus human senses and perceptions”), he stated that psi faculties and exceptional experiencing are not purely scientific issues. Their discovery and development involve larger social, philosophical, political, and religious problems not amenable to objective research and rational appreciation.



The above encyclopedia article is okay as far as it goes, but it was written before the full extent of government involvement in ESP research, especially remote viewing, was widely known.  Now more of Ingo Swann’s fascinating story is available, and I will summarize it here (many more details are available in my book, Reading the Enemy’s Mind: Inside Star Gate – America’s Psychic Espionage Program. I also highly recommend the website dedicated to Ingo Swann and maintained by Ingo Swann’s family. ).

The most significant missing fact is that the research program in which Hal Puthoff engaged Ingo was started and funded by the United States intelligence community, and continued by various of the military Services.  You can read a good overview of this part of remote viewing history on this site at The Beginnings of Remote Viewing

Supported by the military and intelligence communities, Ingo worked through the program at SRI-International to not only explore the boundary conditions of remote viewing, the consciousness-based skill that he had discovered and developed, but he used it operationally to discover some of the secrets America’s erstwhile Cold War opponents were trying to hide.  Eventually, Swann and Puthoff were asked to develop a teachable method of remote viewing that could be transferred to otherwise ordinary military personnel so they, too, could function as psychic spies.

After extensive research over a number of years, the Swann/Puthoff team leveraged the resources of the SRI consciousness program to develop what is now known as “controlled remote viewing” – a six-stage method that can be taught and mastered by anyone of sufficient mental competency.  Among those taught this method directly by Puthoff and Swann were Ed Dames, Bill Ray, Tom McNear, Charlene Shufelt, and myself (Paul H. Smith) – though an undisclosed number of others were taught as well.  We in turn trained now widely-known remote viewers such as Mel Riley, Lyn Buchanan, and David Morehouse.

Over the course of his career, Swann not only introduced revolutionary new ways of thinking about consciousness research, but created what is today probably the most successful and widely-used method of teaching the practical use of consciousness-based skills.  In accomplishing those purposes, he himself performed uncountable thousands of remote viewing sessions in support of research, training, and operational goals.  A listing of his research accomplishments can be found here.

Even in his retirement, Ingo Swann maintained an interest in the progress of our understanding of human mental functioning, and was an avid observer not only of the human condition itself, but of the inroads being made to discover the full potential of the mind.  At the time of his death, on the evening of January 31, 2013, Ingo was well along in the process of creating a new book featuring his marvelous art work.

Paul H. Smith, Ph.D.